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Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

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COVID-19 vaccine

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020. The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness. On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID‑19. The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the severity and death caused by COVID‑19.Many countries have implemented phased distribution plans that prioritize those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workers.As of 4 December 2021, 8.14 billion doses of COVID‑19 vaccines have been administered worldwide based on official reports from national public health agencies. By December 2020, more than 10 billion vaccine doses had been preordered by countries, with about half of the doses purchased by high-income countries comprising 14% of the world's population.


COVID-19 vaccine card

A COVID-19 vaccine card is a record often given to those who have received a COVID-19 vaccine showing information such as the date(s) one has received the shot(s) and the brand of vaccine one has received, sometimes including the lot number. The card also contains information identifying the recipient and the location where the shot was given. Depending on the country, it could serve as an official document verifying one has received vaccination, which could be required by some institutions, such as a school or workplace, when boarding a cruise ship, or when crossing an international border, as proof that one has been vaccinated. Some countries issue digital records while others issue paper records. In some EU countries, citizens might choose to have a digital record, a piece of paper, or both.


Deployment of COVID-19 vaccines

As of 4 December 2021, 8.14 billion COVID-19 vaccine doses have been administered worldwide, with 54.9 percent of the global population having received at least one dose. While 34.41 million vaccines were then being administered daily, only 6.2 percent of people in low-income countries had received at least a first vaccine by December 2021, according to official reports from national health agencies, which are collated by Our World in Data.During a pandemic on the rapid timeline and scale of COVID-19 cases in 2020, international organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO) and Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), vaccine developers, governments, and industry evaluated the distribution of the eventual vaccine(s). Individual countries producing a vaccine may be persuaded to favor the highest bidder for manufacturing or provide first-service to their own country. Experts emphasize that licensed vaccines should be available and affordable for people at the frontline of healthcare and having the greatest need.In April 2020, it was reported that the UK agreed to work with 20 other countries and global organizations including France, Germany and Italy to find a vaccine and to share the results, and that UK citizens would not get preferential access to any new COVID‑19 vaccines developed by taxpayer-funded UK universities. Several companies planned to initially manufacture a vaccine at artificially low pricing, then increase prices for profitability later if annual vaccinations are needed and as countries build stock for future needs.An April 2020 CEPI report stated: "Strong international coordination and cooperation between vaccine developers, regulators, policymakers, funders, public health bodies, and governments will be needed to ensure that promising late-stage vaccine candidates can be manufactured in sufficient quantities and equitably supplied to all affected areas, particularly low-resource regions." The WHO and CEPI are developing financial resources and guidelines for global deployment of several safe, effective COVID‑19 vaccines, recognizing the need is different across countries and population segments. For example, successful COVID‑19 vaccines would be allocated early to healthcare personnel and populations at greatest risk of severe illness and death from COVID‑19 infection, such as the elderly or densely-populated impoverished people.


Janssen COVID-19 vaccine

The Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, or Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine, is a COVID-19 vaccine that was developed by Janssen Vaccines in Leiden, Netherlands, and its Belgian parent company Janssen Pharmaceuticals, subsidiary of American company Johnson & Johnson.It is a viral vector vaccine based on a human adenovirus that has been modified to contain the gene for making the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. The body's immune system responds to this spike protein to produce antibodies. The vaccine requires only one dose and does not need to be stored frozen.Clinical trials for the vaccine were started in June 2020, with Phase III involving around 43,000 people. On 29 January 2021, Janssen announced that 28 days after a completed vaccination, the vaccine was 66% effective in a one-dose regimen in preventing symptomatic COVID-19, with an 85% efficacy in preventing severe COVID-19 and 100% efficacy in preventing hospitalization or death caused by the disease.The vaccine has been granted an emergency use authorization by the US Food and Drug Administration and a conditional marketing authorization by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency.


List of COVID-19 vaccine authorizations

National regulatory authorities have granted emergency use authorizations for twenty-five COVID-19 vaccines. Seven vaccines have been approved for emergency or full use by at least one stringent regulatory authority recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO): Pfizer–BioNTech, Oxford–AstraZeneca, Sinopharm BIBP, Moderna, Janssen, CoronaVac and Covaxin. Five others are under assessment by the WHO: Sputnik V, Sinopharm WIBP, Convidecia, Novavax and Sanofi–GSK.Specific versions of four vaccines have been authorised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA): Pfizer–BioNTech, Janssen, Moderna and Oxford–AstraZeneca. Specific versio