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They can be chained together


Tue, Nov 02, 2021 12:00 AM PT

Without hyphens  The Indian Express

The Indian Express

Mon, May 24, 2021 12:00 AM PT


Sun, Aug 05, 2018 12:00 AM PT

Hysteria over hyphens  The Economist

The Economist

Thu, Jun 08, 2017 12:00 AM PT

A WORD, PLEASE:  Los Angeles Times

Los Angeles Times

Wed, Oct 03, 2007 12:00 AM PT

The Much-Maligned Hyphen

Thu, Dec 19, 2019 12:00 AM PT


Rough breathing

In the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, the rough breathing (Ancient Greek: δασὺ πνεῦμα, romanized: dasỳ pneûma or δασεῖα daseîa; Latin: spīritus asper) character, is a diacritical mark used to indicate the presence of an /h/ sound before a vowel, diphthong, or after rho. It remained in the polytonic orthography even after the Hellenistic period, when the sound disappeared from the Greek language. In the monotonic orthography of Modern Greek phonology, in use since 1982, it is not used at all. The absence of an /h/ sound is marked by the smooth breathing. The character has also been used for a similar sound by Thomas Wade (and others) in the Wade–Giles system of romanization for Mandarin Chinese. Herbert Giles and others have used a left (opening) curved single quotation mark for the same purpose; the apostrophe, backtick, and visually similar characters are often seen as well.



Shaddah (Arabic: شَدّة‎ shaddah "[sign of] emphasis", also called by the verbal noun from the same root, tashdid تشديد tashdīd "emphasis") is one of the diacritics used with the Arabic alphabet, marking a long consonant (geminate). It is functionally equivalent to writing a consonant twice in the orthographies of